Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National by Rashid Khalidi

By Rashid Khalidi

This foundational textual content now includes a new creation by way of Rashid Khalidi reflecting at the value of his paintings over the last decade and its courting to the fight for Palestinian nationhood.

Khalidi additionally casts a watch to the long run, noting the energy of Palestinian id and social harmony but thinking about even if present tendencies will bring about Palestinian statehood and independence.

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Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness

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Example text

This created a dynamic of steady, inexorable state growth. One might surmise that the Slovak and Polish state administrations expanded so much not because of patronage but because they were adding capacity while the Czechs were not. However, if new personnel were added because they met real needs and were meritocratically selected, then the effectiveness of the state administration should have risen in at least rough proportion to its growth in size. In my interviews with state officials from  to  (presented in Chapter ), this was certainly not the picture of Slovak and Polish state-building that emerged.

Administrators strive to define themselves as policy professionals, and the administrations they are part of as legal-rational bureaucracies. There is a self-interested calculation behind this choice, one that depends on an individual’s long-term expectations about the strategy’s future benefits. Patronage politics, which is most pervasive in weak-governance and dominant-party systems, introduces uncertainty into this calculation. If a change in the political winds seems likely, and if such a change could adversely affect the administrator’s future as a professional bureaucrat, why invest the time and effort in the slow strategy of professionalization?

Officials with these impulses were often weak politically, however. In weak-governance or dominantparty systems that routinely throw up pressures for intervention in the administrative apparatus, these impulses do not develop uninterrupted. A critical mass of professional administrators never forms, and the state administration remains mired in the patrimonial mode. The failure to bureaucratize in turn reinforces the tendency for patronage politics: an ineffective administration makes it hard for the governing parties to deliver on programmatic campaign proposals, reinforcing the voters’ disillusionment, which again increases the parties’ reliance on the critical party activists and popular leaders who can win elections and whose own loyalty rests on the informal quid pro quo of patronage politics.

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